Training Day 5: Closing Arguments, Jury Instructions, Sentencing, Farewells, and Reflections

In the post below, NACDL Indigent Defense Counsel John Gross describes the fifth and final day of the training workshop.

20 June 2014

Friday had seemed so far away when we unpacked our bags last Sunday, but now it was upon us. We had to catch a flight out of Monrovia at 6:30 p.m., which meant that we were going to have to leave Kakata by 2:00 p.m. That left us only a half day for our final training session, but we were determined to make the most of it. We planned on covering summations, jury instructions and sentencing.


Presentation of awards during the final day of the training.

Elizabeth Kelley began the day with an excellent presentation on closing arguments. Having already excelled at developing case theories and giving opening statements, we assumed that the Liberians would be able to deliver powerful closing arguments and that assumption proved to be true.

One of the things that we decided we would discuss with the Liberians was the importance of jury instructions. When Rick Jones visited Liberia several months ago to do an assessment of training needs, the Liberians had not identified jury instructions as a training priority. However, as we researched Liberian Supreme Court decisions, it became clear that the failure of defense counsel to request specific jury instructions or to object to charging errors made by the trial judge occurred fairly often. It became easy to understand why this occurred once the Liberians told us that not only are there no pattern jury instructions in Liberia, but that they typically have to make a specific request to the trial judge to charge the jury on basic legal principles like the presumption of innocence and the burden of proof. We worked with the Liberians on creating a set of sample jury instruction for claims of self-defense and they immediately understood how these instructions would inform their theory of the case, their opening statements and their closing argument to the jury.

Another topic of discussion was how to make complex legal concepts understandable to jurors who may have very little formal education and who may not appreciate the role that a public defender plays in an adversarial system of justice. One idea that we came up with was for the Liberians to use stories from the Bible to illustrate legal points to the jury. God’s assurance to Abraham that he would not destroy Sodom if there were but five righteous men living there could be used to convey the need for proof beyond a reasonable doubt. The story of Susanna and the Elders could be used to show the importance of cross examination. The Liberians agreed that using Biblical examples of legal principles would make a tremendous impact on jurors.

Finally, we turned our attention to sentencing. One initial question we had was whether Liberians have the opportunity to do pre-pleading and pre-sentence memoranda. The idea of a pre-pleading memorandum started a discussion about plea bargaining and revealed an interesting difference between the plea bargaining system in Liberia and the one here in the United States. In Liberia, if the prosecution and the defense agree that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser offense than the one charged, then the trial court must accept that plea in satisfaction of the charges. However, the prosecution and the defense may only recommend a sentence; the judge retains the discretion to impose any sentence authorized by law. We also learned that the period between conviction and sentence is typically just four days in Liberia and that the defense attorney only has ten days following a conviction to file with the trial court a “bill of exceptions” which will serve as the basis for an appeal.

Throughout the week, we were amazed by the challenges that the Liberian public defenders have to face. As we spent our last few hours with them, we began to have a feeling similar to the one you experience when a jury is deliberating. The question we couldn’t help but ask ourselves was: “Have we done enough?” We got our answer during the final few minutes of the training. While they all said they wished the training was longer and expressed their hope that we would be able to return to Liberia to do additional trainings in the future, they also said how excited they were to try out the techniques and strategies we had shared with them. Their passion and determination were once again on display. The Director of the Judicial Institute who had attended the training was one of the last people to speak. He said that he firmly believed that our training and the manuals developed by NACDL would result in fundamental changes to the way public defenders practice criminal defense in Liberia.

As we made our way through customs at the airport later that afternoon, I glanced down at my passport and noticed the seal that was on my visa. It depicts the ship the Elizabeth,which brought the first African American settlers to the shores of what would become the Republic of Liberia and the motto “The Love of Liberty Brought Us Here.” As you might expect, that motto generates quite a bit of controversy within Liberia since it refers only to the small group of settlers that would come to be known as “Americo Liberians” and would rule the country for over 150 years. Still, I couldn’t help feel that it was a fitting reminder of why NACDL, as an organization, decided to work on this project. There is no place that NACDL, Liberty’s Last Champion, will not go to help protect the rights of the accused. Wherever we go, it is the love of liberty that leads us there.


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Training Day 4: Juvenile Justice in Liberia, Opening Statements, Jury Selection, and Cross Examinations

In the post below, NACDL Indigent Defense Counsel John Gross describes the fourth day of the training workshop.

19 June 2014

The guest house where we are staying sits next to a school and during our first few mornings in Kakata we heard children singing, but on Thursday morning they were drowned out by the sound of water as the rain persisted. For the first time since our arrival in Liberia, we awoke to grey skies. At times during the night the rain became so strong that it sounded like a roaring engine and was loud enough to wake some of us up.

Our training schedule for Thursday was perhaps the most challenging of the week, both for the trainers and for the participants. We planned to cover opening statements, the presentation of evidence, cross examination and jury selection. We could have easily spent an entire day on any one of those subjects and still have felt as though we needed more time to cover it adequately. Success or failure would depend largely on the willingness of the Liberians to focus on these complex topics.

The day before we had asked the Liberians to prepare an opening statement based on the hypothetical Martin had designed (involving a defendant who was charged with murder but claimed he was acting in self-defense). Our plan was to get the Liberians on their feet early in the day, but before we could get to opening statements an issue came up about the representation of juveniles in Liberia. Liberia recently passed a Juvenile Justice Act, which established Juvenile Courts similar to those we have in the United States. The act also guarantees juveniles the right to representation, but does not indicate how that representation should be provided. As a stop gap measure, Juvenile Court Judges have been telling parents who have children charged in Juvenile Court to write to the Office of the Public Defender and request representation. Despite the fact that they have enormous caseloads and no juvenile justice training, the public defenders have been doing their best to represent children in Juvenile Court.

As we got ready to hear the Liberian’s opening statements, the Liberians pointed out to us that they didn’t actually give their opening statement at the start of trial. While Liberian criminal procedure is remarkably similar to our own, one striking difference is that the defense gives an “opening” statement not at the start of the case following the prosecutions opening statement, but rather at the conclusion of the prosecution’s case in chief.

After listening to several excellent opening statements and giving our feedback to the attorneys, a number of the participants asked if they could practice opening statements they were working on for actual cases. This was when we were introduced to another excellent Liberian expression: “Six days for the rogue, one day for the master.” The public defender that used the expression had a case where his client was accused of assaulting the complainant, but claimed that the injuries the complainant sustained were because he jumped out of a window when the client came home and discovered that the complainant was having an affair with his wife. The sentiment that the expression tries to capture is that even though someone may be able to hide their transgressions most of the time, eventually they will come to light.

We worked on opening statements throughout the morning and then took our lunch break. For the first time during the week, we were served “fufu” at lunch. Rice is a very big part of the Liberian diet, but like other countries in West Africa, Liberians also eat fufu: boiled cassava that is then pounded into a past which is used to scoop stewed meats or vegetables.

When we came back after lunch we decided that it was time for the Liberians to assume the role of trainers themselves. We had been giving them constructive criticism throughout the week and simultaneously explaining to them what went into a good critique since one of our goals was to “train the trainers.” We asked one of the public defenders to give their opening argument and told the rest of the participants to be ready to critique their colleague’s opening. For the first time during the week all four of us sat on the sidelines while the Liberians ran their own training session. The constructive criticism offered was very productive for the Liberians and very gratifying for us.

The next topic on the agenda was jury selection and Lisa Wayne led the discussion. The jury pool in most counties in Liberia is made up of jurors who have little to no formal education and who are typically unemployed. Jurors are actually paid approximately $250 U.S. dollars if they are selected, which may not seem like a lot to us, but is a significant amount of money in Liberia. People think of jury service as a job and not as a civic duty. This creates a perverse incentive: the people who are most in need of money, and therefore the most likely to be susceptible to bribery, do everything they can to be selected as jurors. This combined with the fact that most of the jurors have only a high school education and a very limited understanding of the legal system and jury selection becomes incredibly challenging.

The next topic on our agenda was cross examination and Martin Sabelli did an outstanding job taking the Liberians through basic cross-examination techniques. Even though it was the fourth day of training, even though it was getting close to 6:00 p.m. and our day had started at 9:00 a.m., the Liberians were determined to learn everything they could about cross examination. This was the moment that we had all traveled so far and worked so hard to achieve. In rapid fire succession the Liberians took turns cross-examining Martin using techniques that an hour ago they knew nothing about. We all sensed that the skills we were trying to teach had begun to take root.

That evening we once again gathered in the common room of the guest house for dinner, a bittersweet occasion since we all knew it was our last night in Liberia. We had a memorable dinner of barbequed chicken, rice, greens, cassava and avocados with a spoonful of “peppa” on the side. After arriving in Liberia it didn’t take us long to realize that Liberians like their food spicy and that no meal is complete without “peppa,” a condiment made of roasted and finely chopped green chilies.

We were about to head off to our rooms when we were joined by several of the Liberian public defenders. Then we did what friends do: we bought each other drinks, told stories, told jokes, told each other we were right about some things, wrong about others and forgot about the fact that we needed to get up early the next day.

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Photos from Kakata 2

In these photos, NACDL Indigent Defense Counsel John Gross, NACDL Past President Lisa Wayne, NACDL Board Member Elizabeth Kelley, and NACDL member Martin Sabelli discuss criminal defense in Liberia, the country’s history, and future with Liberian public defenders and trainers from the James A.A. Pierre Judicial.  Throughout the past week, a team from NACDL has been conducting a workshop with Institute in an effort to improve the quality of criminal defense in Liberia. The workshop is a part of an ongoing project of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC): Promoting Rule of Law & Governance in the Criminal Justice System in Liberia. Read more about the training below. Special thanks to Lisa Wayne for sending the photos.



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Training Day 3: Case Theory and Preparing a Case for Trial + Evidentiary Issues

In the post below, NACDL Indigent Defense Counsel John Gross describes the third day of the training workshop.

18 June 2014

Last night we were reminded that it is the rainy season in Liberia. Just as we got back to the guest house, after our tour of Kakata, the sky opened up. It seemed as though the rain was hitting the roof all at once, in a steady stream, so that the sound coming from the metal roof was not the ping of raindrops but the roaring of a river.

The first few days of our training focused the role of defense counsel and pre-trial issues. During that time we were able to use portions of the Training Manual and Practice Manual as references as we took the participants through various exercises. When drafting the Practice Manual and the Training Manual for the Liberian public defenders, we were fortunate to have an excellent online resource: The Liberian Legal Information Institute. LiberLII was created in response to the disastrous effects the crisis in Liberia had on the Liberian legal system. Liberians didn’t have Westlaw or Lexis to compile their laws and court decisions, they relied on printed material. Many of those materials were lost or destroyed during the wars and the materials that survived were scattered throughout the country.

LiberLII is an online law library that was created by scanning printed materials, including statutes, judicial opinions and law review articles into a searchable database. With LiberLII as a resource, we were able to gain access to Liberia’s rich legal tradition, including over 150 years of Liberian Supreme Court precedent. Although LiberLII is a free on-line resource, Liberian public defenders often practice in areas where access to electricity is limited, let alone access to the Internet. The irony was not lost on us that LiberLII gives a lawyer in the United States an almost unlimited ability to research Liberian case law, while public defenders in Liberia have very limited access to the decisions of their own Supreme Court.

But on Wednesday the focus shifted to developing a case theory and preparing a case for trial. While both the Practice Manual and the Training Manual contained a lot of valuable information, developing a persuasive theory of the case is something that can’t be achieved by following a set of instructions in a manual. We were concerned about developing realistic fact patterns that we could use during our training. Fortunately for us, a question we had about a phrase in one of the Liberian Supreme Court opinions we had found on LiberLII led Martin Sabelli to develop a fact pattern that we used to teach case theory.

In that decision, a defendant was charged with murdering his wife; the defendant claimed that his wife had been killed by a “heart man” who had attacked her while the two of them were walking home at night. We asked our Liberian colleagues what a “heart man” was and we were told that the term refers to someone who kills for ritualistic purposes. The “heart man” believes that by taking the life of another, by taking their “heart,” they will receive some benefit or gain some advantage over others. Martin thought the idea of a “heart man” so sensational that he constructed a legal hypothetical where a defendant who was charged with murder was claiming that he acted in self-defense because he thought he was about to be attacked by a heart man. Martin and Lisa then worked with the Liberian public defenders to identify both the good and the bad facts in the hypothetical and demonstrated how they could use those facts to construct a persuasive theory of the case.

Later that day, Elizabeth and I worked with the Liberians on evidentiary issues. The admission of hearsay is a serious issue in Liberian trial courts. The public defenders said that the problem is in part due to the fact that prosecutors don’t interview their witnesses prior to trial, so they often call a witness who testifies that he is certain that the defendant is guilty because he was told by someone he trusts that the defendant committed the crime. One of the other issues the public defenders said made their job even more challenging was that the typical juror in Liberia has very little formal education. We take it for granted that jurors know about the presumption of innocence, reasonable doubt, the right to remain silent and that they would be skeptical of hearsay evidence. That is a luxury the Liberian public defenders don’t have.

As we worked with the Liberians on articulating a theory of the case and on making objections one thing that we were all struck by is how skilled they are at oral advocacy. They speak with great conviction and they drive home every point with an authoritative gesture. It is very clear that they are passionate advocates and that our goal should be to merge that passion with precision.

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The Current State of Criminal Justice in Liberia

As noted in previous posts, NACDL’s team is currently in Liberia as a part of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC): Promoting Rule of Law & Governance in the Criminal Justice System in Liberia. The homepage of the project notes:

In its most recent report on human rights, the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), found that Liberia’s criminal justice system was still facing serious challenges. Many of the actors in the justice system lack the requisite level of education, or there is not sufficient oversight in place by justice institutions to ensure that people have proper guidance in performing their responsibilities. This is certainly the case with regard to criminal defense services in Liberia. The vast majority of criminal defense lawyers in Liberia serve as public defenders, representing indigent clients accused of crimes. Presently, there are fewer than 30 public defenders in the entire country; most are young and lack experience. The criminal justice system in Liberia provides little institutional or material support for defense attorneys: there is almost no infrastructure in place; all operate without support staff and without central coordination; and there is no continuing legal education program provided. Indeed, it is a common occurrence in Liberia that persons detained for petty crimes are held in prison for longer than their possible sentence before they are given access to an attorney and a fair hearing.

The news articles below highlight some additional issues facing Liberia’s criminal justice system. They come from both the local Liberian press and international media outlets.

Front Page Africa: Weak Capacity to Investigate, UN Panel of Expert Report on Liberia

The United Nations Panel of Expert in its May 23 report to the UN Security council has stated that the Government of Liberia has weak capacity to conduct thorough investigations, especially into complicated cases outside Monrovia. The Panel in its report stated that the government’s capacity to prosecute criminal cases effectively is also weak, citing the current case against the mercenaries who killed the seven peacekeepers from the Niger in 2012. ( June 10, 2014)

Agence France-Presse: Liberia police dogged by graft despite decade of reforms

More than 200,000 people were killed in the 1989-2003 conflicts and thousands more fled the fighting, which left the economy in tatters and the country overrun with weapons. Ten years on, Liberia is one of the world’s most corrupt nations and the police force is seen as the institution most on the take, according to Transparency International’s 2013 Global Corruption Barometer. The graft survey found 77 percent of Liberians asked, had paid a bribe to law enforcement officers in the past year. (Frankie Taggart, May 23, 2014)

Liberian Observer: ‘Jury Services’ on Sale at Temple of Justice

Judge Nancy F. Sammy of Criminal Court ‘B’ has accused officers of the courts of demanding money from individuals just for those persons to serve on jury panels in the court. Judge Sammy made specific reference to Montserrado County. (Abendengo Davis, May 20, 2014)

The New Dawn: Rape Law congests prisons

The Public Defenders in Liberia say most of the defendants in prisons are pre-trial detainees due to a rape law that disallows preliminary examination. Liberia’s Public Defender Coordinator Cllr. James C.R. Flomo says when a suspect is accused of the rape crime, all a magistrate does is by 72 hours, grab the defendant, charge him and throw him into prison. (Winston W. Parley, May 16, 2014)

The New Dawn:Liberia: Judges Asked to Resign

In the wake of continuous demand from judges for adequate budgetary appropriation and improved salaries to ensure an independent Judiciary, the Liberia National Bar Association is asking judges to resign if their support is not sufficient. (Winston W. Parley, May 13, 2014)

The Huffington Post: Re-Designing Justice in Liberia

With the inspiration to find better ways to ensure justice and accountability for the population of West Point, our team at the Accountability Lab sat down for a series of discussions with Tweh using a design-thinking approach. We gathered all available research on justice and accountability issues in West Point, spent time in the community talking to as many citizens as we could, and then began to think about possible solutions to the problem. (Blair Glencorse, May 6, 2014)

IRIN News: Counterfeit drug war in Liberia

Liberia’s Ministry of Health is launching a major crackdown on counterfeit drug sellers throughout the country, but Liberians say they have no choice but to buy such drugs, given their low cost and availability even in rural areas. (January 29, 2014)

The New Dawn: Liberia: Weak Justice System Threatens Development

Liberia’s Acting Chief Justice Francis S. Korkpor has warned that failure to improve on the justice system here may pose threat to the development of the country….Justice Korkpor said it is important that actors within the administration of justice, including the police and other security agencies, prosecutors, members of the trial bar, judges, the Legislature, and Penal Institutions, among others, form partnership to reforming the justice system. (Winston W. Parley, March 27, 2013)

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June 19, 2014 · 11:42 AM

Training Day 2: Discussing the Problems Public Defenders in Liberia Face, Bail Practices, Right to Counsel, and More from Kakata

In the post below, NACDL Indigent Defense Counsel John Gross describes the second day of the training workshop.

17 June 2014

This morning we joined our Liberian colleagues outside on the terrace for coffee and Liberian rice bread: a dense bread made from soaked and pounded rice sweetened with bananas. We had noticed the day before that Liberians had a unique way of greeting one another. At first glance it appeared to be a simple handshake, but upon closer observation we could see that as they withdrew their hands they snapped each other’s fingers. When we asked about the “Liberian handshake” our colleagues showed us how to do it and assured us that by the end of the week we would be able to shake hands like a Liberian.

After Monday’s training session, the coordinator of the public defender’s office, Counselor Flomo, had mentioned that he thought their office would benefit from a set of guiding principles, something that they currently lack. Based on that suggestion, we decided to begin the training session on Tuesday with the ABA’s Ten Principles of a Public Defense Delivery System. What we anticipated would be a half hour session where we introduced the Ten Principles turned into over an hour long discussion about the structural problems with the public defense system in Liberia. The Liberians quickly embraced the Ten Principles and then began debating to what extent they thought they could be implemented in Liberia. What was evident from their debate was how much they had already been thinking about issues like independence, conflicts of interest, caseloads, resources, continuing legal education and supervision.

Day 2 of the training workshop. (Photo Credit: Lisa Wayne)

Day 2 of the training workshop. (Photo Credit: Lisa Wayne)

One surprising fact that came out during this discussion was that Liberian public defenders are often assigned all of the defendants in a case. Although Liberia has established a nationwide public defense system with public defenders assigned to individual counties, they have not established any type of alternative provider of indigent defense in the case of conflicts of interest. The public defenders are often forced to interview multiple defendants in order to determine who they can and should represent. To all of us, this was an obvious breach of legal ethics, but since there is no mechanism to appoint conflict counsel in cases where there are co-defendants, Liberian public defenders are faced with a choice: refuse to represent some defendants and let them languish in jail without any representation, or try their best to represent the often contradictory interests of multiple defendants.

During this debate over how to put into practice the Ten Principles, one of the Margibi County judges paid a visit to the training session. While the judge was very pleased that the training was taking place, she made it very clear, in no uncertain terms, that she was not happy about the fact that the public defender assigned to her court was not invited to the training that was taking place in her county. Of course, the purpose of the training was to “train the trainers” who would be able to work with all of the public defenders in Liberia. That being said, it was clear the judge felt that the failure to include the Margibi County public defender was disrespectful. What struck all of us about the judge’s reaction was that she was the one who was advocating for “her” public defender. We all agreed that we don’t know many judges in the United States that would have been angry over the fact that a public defender wasn’t invited to a training session. After the judge left, the Training Coordinator from the Judicial Institute sighed and said that there was only one public defender for Magribi County which is why they could not ask him to the training; it would have left all of his clients without representation for an entire week. I said that if that was the case and you had invited him, I would have expected the judge to have complained that cases in her court were being unnecessarily delayed because “her” public defender was attending our training.

Later on in the day, we learned that in many counties in Liberia there is only one public defender and with the exception of Montserrado County, the county that includes the capital city of Monrovia, there are at most two public defenders. The public defenders mentioned on several occasions how difficult it was to do their jobs in isolation. As we thought about this, and we considered how much we relied on the advice and encouragement of other defense attorneys, we wondered how the Liberian public defenders we were training, all of whom had been working for the office for several years, had been able to sustain themselves. We thought about it in terms of a tribal culture: something applicable to criminal defense lawyers. Perhaps the worst punishment that can be meted out in that culture is not imprisonment or even death, but exile and the public defenders we were training had be subjected to exactly that.

Day 2 of the training workshop. (Photo Credit: Lisa Wayne)

Day 2 of the training workshop. (Photo Credit: Lisa Wayne)

The session resumed with Lisa Wayne going over tactics for effective pretrial release advocacy. What became apparent was that despite the fact that most Liberians live in extreme poverty, the criminal justice system relies heavily on cash bail. The Liberian Criminal Procedure Law even recommends that judges set bail based on the number of months of potential incarceration multiplied by $25; an excessive amount for most indigent defendants. Next, Martin Sabelli had some of the public defenders practice making bail arguments and then demonstrated how to give constructive criticism, an important skill for trainers to have. We then discussed suppression hearings and did simulations that addressed both the suppression of physical evidence and a defendant’s statements, and I got to play the role of a Liberian National Police officer.

Although the decisions of the US Supreme Court are often referenced by the Liberian Supreme Court, Liberian case law regarding the admission of a defendant’s statements is more protective of a client’s right to counsel than our own law. Liberian Criminal Procedure Law requires that “cautions” be given to suspects whenever a police officer questions them, even if they are not in custody. These “cautions” mirror our Miranda rights and are even referred to by Liberians as “Miranda” rights. That being said, the Liberian Supreme Court has shown a reluctance to permit the waiver of these rights in the absence of counsel, a reluctance no doubt informed by the fact that Liberia has an 85% illiteracy rate. Finally, Elizabeth Kelley stressed the importance of filing and arguing a motion for a continuance of trial, something of critical importance for public defenders when it is common for a judge to give defense counsel only a few days to prepare for a trial.

That evening, one of the UNODC drivers offered to drive us around Kakata. The main road that runs through Kakata is an important link between Monrovia on the coast and the city of Gbarnga which lies in the interior of the country closer to Guinea. The streets were filled with vendors selling from underneath umbrellas and behind them sat rows of small “business centers,” the Liberian term for a general store.

The town is home to two important educational institutions: The Booker Washington Institute (BWI) and the Kakata Rural Teacher Training Institute. BWI is Liberia’s first agricultural and vocational school, which was founded in 1929 and was named after American educator Booker T. Washington. It closed for over a decade during the conflict in Liberia, but it recently reopened and now has approximately 1,800 students. The Teacher Training Institute is one of the few educational institutions in Liberia dedicated to producing the teachers and educators that are so badly needed. We toured the grounds of BWI and saw Liberian students playing basketball, marching in formation in what appeared to be a version of Liberian ROTC and lining up to register for an electrician’s class. Many of the buildings on campus were empty shells, stark reminders of the fact that not so long ago the children who had hoped to be students at BWI came there not as students but as soldiers, not with books but with guns.

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Photos from Kakata

The photos below were taken during the first two days of the training workshop that a team from NACDL is conducting with Liberian public defenders and trainers from the James A.A. Pierre Judicial Institute in an effort to improve the quality of criminal defense in Liberia. The workshop is a part of an ongoing project of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC): Promoting Rule of Law & Governance in the Criminal Justice System in Liberia. The photos come courtesy of NACDL Past President Lisa Wayne and Marco Teixeira of the UNODC.


Day 1 of the training workshop (Photo Credit: Marco Teixeira)


(First Row, L to R) NACDL Indigent Defense Counsel John Gross, NACDL Past President Lisa Wayne, NACDL Board Member Elizabeth Kelley. (Second Row) NACDL Member Martin Sabelli. (Photo Credit: Marco Teixeira)


NACDL Board Member Elizabeth Kelley addresses the training workshop. (Photo Credit: Lisa Wayne)


NACDL Board Member Elizabeth Kelley addresses the training workshop. (Photo Credit: Lisa Wayne)


Kem Guest House, where the NACDL team is staying during the training. (Photo Credit: Lisa Wayne)

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